澳门葡京pj真人投注

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        1. 澳门葡京pj真人投注:2019年12月份宁夏钢材市场价格维持跌势

          文章来源:中新网 发布时间: 2020-04-02 15:14:32 阅读:460114 【字号:

          澳门葡京pj真人投注ChenXiaohong,ZhangWenkuiLiZhaoxiResearchReportNo187,,thereformofthestateassetmanagementsystemisanimportantissuecloselylinkedtothereformofthestate-ownedenterprises,foritinvolvessuchspecificiss,theThirdPlenarySessionofthe14thCPCCentralCommitteealsolaiddownthestateassetmanagementprinciple,namely,the"centralizedstate-ownership,variouslevelsofgovernmentsupervisionandautomaticenterprisemanagement".TheFourthPlenarySessionofthe15thCPCCentralCommitteefurtherstipulatedthesixteen-wordprincipleforstateassetmanagementsystem,namely,"stateownership,variouslevelsofmanagement,dividedsupervisionresponsibilitiesandauthorizedmanagement",andgavelocalgovernmentsmorepowerinthere,manymajorproblemsofthestateassetmanagementsystem,includingthebasicorientationandspecificpolicymanagement,especnagementsystem,,itremainsquiteambiguousinissuessuchasthemeaningofauthorization,sesdispersedinvariousgovernmentdepartments,enterprisesfeelatlossastowhomtoturntowhenimplementingdecisionsthatneedapprovalfromagensesandholdrelevantresponsibilities,theydonothavetheownershiprightsinlegaltermsand,therefore,,interferenceof"shareholders"thatbypasstheirimmediateleadersand"insidercontrol".Thisreportwillputforwardsomeviewsandproposalsontherelationshipforrightsforstate-ownedassets,SystemWheretheCeteassetswhileadheringto"state-ownership"lgovernmentsoverstateassetsisabasicissuerelated"state-ownershipandvariouslevelsofmanagement"andformulatenewstipulationson"authorizedmanagement""variouslevelsofmanagement"shouldbechangedinto"variouslevelsofownership".Webelievethatalthoughtheemergenceofthesystemandtheprincipleof"state-ownershipandvariouslevelsofmanagement"havetheirhistoricalrationale,,therefore,toadjustanddefinetheownershiprightsofthecentralandlocalgovernmentinvestors.·Chinahasalreadyrecognizedthepubliclyacknowledgedbasicprincipleofthemarketeconomicsystemof"whoeverinvestsowns"andhassetupcorrespondinglegalsystem,whichdeviatesfromtheprinciplethatgivesnoregardtoinvestorsbutcentralization;·Variouslevelsofgovernmentsalreadypossesstheownershiprightsatleastoverenterprisesinvestedbythecurrentlevelsofgovernmentsoroverthestate-ownedenterpriseswhosemanagementrightshavelongbeendelegatedtothecurrentlevelsofgovernmentsbythehigherlevelsofgovernments;therefore,anyeffortthatrefusestoadmittheexistingeconomicandlegalrelationsisapttoleadtoshort-termacts;·China’spublicfinancesystemisineffectahierarchicalsystemandwillbefurtherdevelopedandperfectedwiththecompletionofChina’staxationandpublicfinancetransferpaymentsystem;thestate-ownedenterpriseswith"centralizedownership"inthepastshouldbetrulydividedintothestate-owned(centralgovernmentowned)enterprises,localpublic-ownedenterprises(ormaybecalledlocalstate-ownedenterprisesinconsiderationofhistoricalcontinuity)orstateandlocalgovernmentjointlyownedenterprisesbasedontheirrespectiveshares;·Incountriesofmarketeconomy,state-ownedenterprisesorlocalpublic-ownedenterprisesaregenerallycalledpublicenterprisesorpublicinstitutionsownedbyautonomousentities;thepublic-ownedenterprisesofstateautonomousentitiesarethestate-ownedenterprisesandthepublicly-ownedenterpr,evenifitisjustviewedfromtheimplementationlevel,therearestillproblemsifthe"variouslevelsofownership",thereistheproblemofambiguoustargetsof"variouslevelsofownership".Shouldalllocalgovernment-financedenterprisesorenterpriseswhosemanagementrightsaredelegateddownbythecentralgovernmenttolocalgovernmentsbeownedbythelatterWhatarethebasisandconditionsfordoingsoThedelegationofpowerinthepastwasbasedonpreconditionsof"variouslevelsofmanagement"butnotof"variouslevelsofownership".Moreimportantly,thestate"centralizedownership"systeminthepastwasrelatedtotheentirestateeconomicsystems,especiallythepublicfinance,"centralizedownership"system,itisnecessar"delegated"enterprisescloselylinkedtothenationaleconomy,correspondingresponsibilitiesofvariousparties,theirrelationswithmajorenterprisereformpolicies,(),thecompletionofthehierarchicalpublicfinancesystemandtheprocesstoimprovethecorrespondingtaxationsystem....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

          FengFeiResearchReportNo181,2002Thereformofthecurrentgovernmentcontrolledelectricalpowersupplysystemandtheestablishmentofamodernelectricalpowersupplysupervisionsystemthatconformstothereformtowardsmarketizationofthepowerindustryandrelevantgeneralinternationalpracticeisvitaltotheearlyestablishmentandeffectivefunctioningofthemarketmechanismofthepowerindustry,theeffectivemonitoringandaccelerationofthereformsinasmoothandorderlymanner,andthere,thesuccessorfailureofthepowerindustryreformdepe,however,thatthecurrentrefor—atthestateandregionallevels,withoutgivingsufficientconsiderationinitsdivisionofpor,,sincetheprovincialmarketsaredifficulttobecompressedwithinashortperiodoftime,theregionalsupervisorybodiesmaybecomeineffectiveastheyarefarawayfromtheprovincialmarketsandthereuponassumesafartoolargeareaofsupervision,leaving,inreality,,boththesupervisorybodiesandvariousma,atthebeginningofthereform,rtheregionalsupervisorybodies,th,the"weakimpact"ofthesebodiesonprovincialmarketsmaylikelypushtheprocessofcultivatingtheregionalelectricalpowermarketthroughthesetti,manycountrieshaveadoptedsystemreformsthatmainlyincludedparallelintroductionofmarketmechanismandrgsupervision(mainlyovereconomicregulations),introducingmaximummarketcompetitionmechanismintotheelectricalpowerindustry,adoptingtheconceptoflimitedscopeofsupervision(concentratingonsupervisionoverpowergridmonopolyofelectricalpowertransmissionanddistribution),settingthemainobjectiveofsupervisionasfacilitatingafullcompetitionamongeligibleelements,,themarketmechanismswillbeabletoplaytheirrolesinresourceallocation,,,theestablishmentofelectricalpowersupervisorybodiesandthedeterminationontheirte,,whenthemarketmechanismsarestilldeveloping,orwhentheyarestillimmature,,thesupervisorymechanismshouldbedynamic,astherearewidedifferencesbetweenprojectionsduringthmentTheidealelectricalpowermarketstructureandcompetitionmechanisms(withoutreferringtocompetitioninthesalesmarketofelectricalpowerforthetimebeing,soastocorrespondtothecurrentreformplan)mayhavethefollowingfeatures:(1)Themarketoperationmechanisms:Appropriateandeffectivecompetitionexistsinthepowergenerationmarket,andpricingforelectriributiongrids,andthegovernmentcontrolsthepricingoftransmissionanddistributionprices.(2)Themarketstructure:Nosingleelectricalpowerproducerhasdominatinginfluenceinthemarketandallentitiesmaintaintheirrespectivefairshare,allelectricalpowerproducercompaniesareindependentcompetitorsandhave/acquirediversifiedstockequitystructures.(3)Themarketstate:Aunifiedmarketwithoptimumcompetitionhastakenformandthesituationofattemptedself-sustainedbalanceofelectricalpowersupplyofindividualprovinceshasundergonefundamentalchange,nationalpowermarkethasalsogrownintoanappropriatescale,tionalscale;an,theremaybetwoapproachestosetupthepowersupervisionbody:Oneisathree-tierstructure,namely,thepowersupervisionmechanismconsistedofthreelevelsincludingthestate,regionsandcertainprovinces(ormunicipalitiesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernmentorautonomousregions).Theotherisatwo-tierstructure,namely,thesupervisionmechanismconsistedofonlytwounitsatthestateandregionallevels,leavingnosimilarunitsattheprovinciallevel....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1Certainly,thismarketinconceptislimitedtothemarketofcompetingpowerproducers,aswellastheelectricalpowersalesmarkettobesetupgraduallyinfuture.澳门葡京pj真人投注

          GuoLihongTheInterimMeasuresfortheControloftheFinancingofSocialSecurityFundthroughtheReductionofSharesHeldbytheState(hereinafterreferredtoasMeasuresfortheReductionoftheHoldingofShares)wereformallypromulgatedonJune12,,ChinaSecuritiesRegulatoryCommissionhastilysuspendedtheimplem,,theMeasuresintensified(notinduced)thestockmarketvibration,leadingtodisproportionategainsandlossesthoughtheamountofs,itisnotrighttoblameconsumersfornotappreciatingthem,butnecessarytocheckthequality,’smarket,allenterprisesunderstandthisprinciple,whichshouldnotbeoverlookedbyagovernmentthattriestosellitsgoods,thoughthegoodsaresomewhatspecial–suresfortheReductionofHoldingofSharesan,onlyArticle6isappropriateintermofwords,whichsays"thereductionofstate-heldsharesshalladoptmarketpricingmethodinprinciple,",le,,theMeasuresfortheReductionoftheHoldingofSharesfailedbyparticularlyholdingontothethreemajorfundamentaldefectsofthestate-ownedeconomy,namelytheambiguouspropertyownershipright,themixing-upofadministrat,nancerevenues,controllocalgovernmentinvestedenterprises,"individual-responsibilityforfinancerevenuesandexpendituresanddifferentlevelsofownershipofgovernmentassets".Theyareparticularlyreflectedintheideaof"investorownershipandinvestorincomeownership",andaregenerallyacknowledgedtruthsinallmarketeconomieswhereprovincial,prefecture,countyandcityenterprisesarenotreferredtoas"stateenterprises".Despitelocalgovernmentownershipoflocalfinancerevenues,enterprisesfinancedbylocalgovernmentsarenotcountedaspropertyoflocalgovernmentsandtheincomesfromreduceds"principles"arenotinventionsoftheMeasuresfortheReductionoftheHoldingofShares,theywerereiteratedinArticle3oftheMeasuresas"possessedbythestate,managedatdifferentlevelsandoperatedwithauthorization".Thecapitallinkagebetweeninvestorsandenterpriseshasdisappeared,andhasbeenreplacedinsteadby"youinvestandIown"administrativerelations,velsofgovernmentisahistoricaldefectofthestate-ownedassets,"clearownershipright"hasbeenmadeformanyyears,irproblematicenterprisesandindustriestothelower-levelgovernmentsandtakeovertheprofi,thispracticegeneratessoftresponsibiluetothe"depletion-fearsyndrome".Nomatterifthereisanydepletionunderothersituations,itiscertainthatimmediatelyaftertheadoptionoftheMeasuresfortheReductionoftheHoldingofShares,thepropertyoistedcompaniesratherthanlistedones,itisself-evidenthowlocalgovernments,theirholdingcompanies,listedcompaniesandsecudadministrativeandassetmanagementresponsibilitiessplitsthefunctionsoftheassetownersintovariousadministr,articles4,7,8,10,11,12,13and14oftheMeasuresfortheReduction,itincludesexaminationandapprovalbyinter-ministerialjointconference,presidedoverconstantlybytheMinistryofFinance,actuallyoperatedbyChinaSecuritiesReg,suchadivisionofresponsibilitiesdoesnot(alsodoesnotattemptto)removetherootsofthedefect,whichpersistinequityreductionissuesandgivenewtingestothemixedgovernmentadministrationandassetmanagementresponsibilities.(1)Reductionofrgetingonemployeesofthestate-ownedenterprises–thebottleneckofthestate-ownedenterpriseref,itysystemisamajorissuethataffectsthestabilityofthestate-ownedenterprisesaswellasthesociety,andduetolong-timebrewing,,itisthefocusofconcernofthe"administration".Althoughthe"asset"isalsoanassociatedissue,,fina,suchreductionmeanstheexitofgovernmentassets,"asset"ratherthanthatof"administration".TheexitofstateassetsinSingaporewasnamed"assetunloading",whichwasimplementedbyTemarelsHoldingCo.,,theauthoritiessetuptheState-ownedEnterpris,Israelstartedtoaccelerateprivatisationprocessin1997throughtheGovernmentCompaniesAuthority,whichwasadepartmen,,industrialsequence,stepsofreductionoftheholdingofshares,cha,itstillrequiresgreatefforttocarryouttheirfunctions....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,

          XieFuzhan,LiuShijin,LuZhongyuan,LiJianwei,WangZhaoXuanXiaoweiAfteraperiodofacceleratedgrowthfrom2002to2004,"wasstabilizedatahighlevelandshowedadeclinefromthehighlevel,"employmentincreased,theinvestmentgrowthratedeclinedfromahighlevelandthenstabilized,consumerdemandcontinuedtogrowsteadily,thepriceleveldroppedsteadily,fiscalandfinancialoperationswerestable,andth,newproblemsaroseindomesticeconomicoperations,suchasabigincreaseinthenumberofloss-makingenterprises,theemergenceofsurplusproductioncapacityinsomeindustries,difficultyinincreasingfarmers’lsoincreased,mainlyaggravatedtradefriction,oilpricesthatstagnatedatthehighlevelandthepotentialforeconomicslowdownsintheUnitedStates,:TheChineseeconomywillmaintainastableandfastgrowthtrendthisyearandnextyear,andthisgrowthrateisestimatedtobeabout9%.Nextyearwillseeacontinuedmoderatefiscalandmonetarypolicy,deepenedreforminkeysectors,andeffortstopromotethetransformationofthemodeofeconomicgrowth,soastobuildasolidfoundationfo’sEconomicTrend:theEconomyWillMaintainaHighandStableGrowthRateandShowSignsofSlightDecline,ThereIsSlimProbabilityofanyBigDeclineorRemarkableRebound,ButMoreAttentionShouldBePaidtotheMarginofDeclineJudgingfromthedevelopmentsofmajoreconomicindicatorsasGDP,investment,consumptiondemandandprice,China’seconomicoperationhasbeguntoslowdownfromitsgrowthpeakinthefourthquarterof2003,:first,%%forfiveconsecutivequarters;growthratesinthesecondaryandtertiaryindustriesdroppedandstabilizedatabout11%and8%%%inthefirstsevenmonthsofthisyear,adeclinereflectingareasonableadjustment,,thegrowthrateoffixedassetinvestment,%inthefirstquarterof2004,basicallystabilizedatabout27%,withinvestmentsintherealestate,ironandsteel,buildingmaterials,petrochemicalandelectricpowerindustriesdecliningremarkably,andwithinvestmentsinsectorsasmachinebuilding,farmandsidelineproducepro,consumerdemandcontinuedtogrowsteadily,anditsgrowthrate,afterdeductingpricefactors,wasbasicallystableatabout11%inthefirsteightmonthsofthisyear,slightlyhigherthanthe10%,%%inAugustthisyear,thepriceindexforfactorsofproductionintheJanuary-Augustperiodwasbasicallystablebetween7%to8%.ThesteadygrowthtrendintheChineseeconomyindicatesthatmacro-controlmeasuresaretimelyandeffective,,thereisstillarelaumptionstructure,theacceleratingdevelopmentofheavyindustryandthequickeningurbanizationprocessthathelpspeeduptheeconomicgrowth,therearealsosomenewfactors:First,,thegrowthrateofinvestmentby%,%.Basedonthis,itisestimatedt%intheJanuary-Augustperiod,%.Underthecircumstancesofasharpdeclineininvestmentbystate-ownedenterprisesandaslightdropofforeigndirectinvestment(%intheJanuary-Julyperiodcomparedwiththesameperiodoflastyear),thelargeincreaseinnon-statein,regionalecon,theeconomicgrowthofthecentralandwesternregionswasgenerallyfasterthanthatofthecoastalregion;andinthecoastalregion,theeconomicgrowthofthenortherncoastalar,theindustrialgrowthrateofInnerMongolia,Jiangxi,Shanxi,Anhui,Henan,Hunan,Guangxi,SichuanandQinghaiinthecentralregionwasallabove20%.ThegrowthratesofindustriesandinvestmentinthenortherncoastalareasasShandong,HebeiandTianjinwereallmuc,theamountofindustrialaddedvalueofShandongProvinceexceeded,forthefirsttime,,thecomparativeadvantagesofChina’mberoftradedisputes,thetr,Chineseeconomicdevelopmentwillalsohavetofacenumerousshrinkingandunfavorablefactors,mainlyincluding:--,Chineseeconomicfluctuationsincludeshortcyclesoffluctuationscausedbychangesinenterpriseinventory,medium-termcyclesoffluctuationscausedbychangesinfixedinvestment,andlo(usually6-8years,withagrowthperiodlasting2-3years,andadeclineperiodlasting5-6years),theyear2004shouldbethepeakofthelatestroundofeconomicgrowthcycle,,thedeclineperiodofthisroundofcyclecouldbedelayed,%.Judgingfromthemediumandlong-termcycleofeconomicfluctuation(about11-12years),theyear2006willbethepeakforthenewroundofcycle,andthengro%,andtheGDPgrowthratefrom2005to2009couldmaintainanannualaverageofover8%.--Theprospectsforindustrialgrowthwillbestableandshowaslightdecline,,thegrowthrateofindustriessuchasironandsteel,buildingmaterials,petro,profitsofindustriesasbuildingmaterials,electricpower,autoandelectronicsdroppedsignificantly,riesinthesectorwilllikelyleadtoaslowdowninindustrialgrowthnextyear.--Theg,majorinternationalinstituti,EuropeanUnionandJapan,allmajortradepartnersofChina,,%%,%,%tyear.

          澳门新濠天地app地址LiShantong,HouYongzhiFengJie,Departm,ategyandPoliciesforaCoordinatedRegionalDevelodpolicytoachievethisgoal:First,’sintegrationwithworldeconomyarebeingdeepened,itisstillt,weshould,first,encourage(atleastnotprevent)theconcentrationofresourcesandelementstowardsadvantageousregionssoastoformseveralregionswithinternationallystrongorfairlystrongcompetitiveness–thisisarealisticchoicethatshouldbemadeagainstthecurrentbackground;second,duringthe11thFive-YearPlanorinafairlylongperiodoftime,therecouldnotbeabundantresourcestobeusedtosolv,asthebuyer’smarketisformedanddomesticandinternationalcompetitionistenser,cesupply,futureregionalcooperationwilltargetthegoalofexploringthemarket,,thevariousphenomena,whichusuallyrunagainstregionaldevelopment,occurduringthetransitionalperiod,,,toeliminatethephenomenathatimpairregionaldevelopmentandrealizecoordinatedregionaldevelopment,weshouldpushformarket-orie,,asthecountryisgraduallymergedintotheglobaleconomy,saswellastradeandinvestmentrelationswithothercountries(regions).Onthebasisoftheaboveanalysis,webelievethatthefollowingthreemajorrelationshipsshouldbewellhandledinmakingandimplementingregionaldevelopmentstrategiesandpolicies:pandraisingthecountry’soverallstrengthandcompetitivenessTheregionalgaphasarousedwidespreadconcernandbeenr,,weshouldnotethattheregionalgapwasinawaycausedbypolicyorientation,,itisinhisproblem:thedevelopedregionsarenotcompetitiveenoughtocopewithinternationalcompetition,sothe,duringthe11thFive-YearPlanandeventhewholeperiodofbuildingthewell-offsociety,wemustproperlyhandletherelationshipbetweencurbingtheexpandingoftheregionalgapandraisingthecountry’,thecentralgovernmentmustbeaskedtoprodinthedevelopedregions,andeventuallytotheimprovementofthecompetitivenessofdevelopedregionsandthecentralgovernment’,butinthelongrun,itwillaffecttheupgradingofcompetitivenessandfortunecreationabilityofthedevelopedregions,thushavinganegativeimpactonthecentralgovernment’,regionalpolicyduringthe11thFive-YearPlanshouldtakeintocvelopedregions,,theregionalgapwillcontinusmorepublicproductsandtakepropermeasurestopromotethedevelopmentoftheirsocialwelfaresothattheresidentsintheseregionswouldgradsourcesandproperlyplayingtheroleofgovernmentUnderamarketeconomy,,thegovernmentusedadministrativemeanstoforcetheelementstoflowwithoutfollowingtheeconomiclaworconsideringtheelements’eteconomy,thegovernment,especiallythecentralgovernment,,guiderationalindustrialdivision,promoteregionalcooperation,supporttheless-developedregionstoincreasetheabilitytoprovideproductsandencouragethedsoftheregionalpoliciesvelopmentinthetargetregionsoftheregionalpolicies.

          澳门葡京pj真人投注SunXiaoyuBuildingaresource-efficientsocietyandrealizingasustainabledevelopmenthavebecomethegoalallcfeconomicdevelopmentandthenon-renewablefeatureofsomeresources,allcountrieswouldhaveto,basedontheirrespectivenationalconditions,improvetheutilizationefficiencyofresourcesandreduce’sindustrialization,urbanizationandmodernization,thesupply-demandconflictintermsofresourcesisgrowing,,comparedwithothercountries,morecomplicated,,basedonthescenarioofChina’seconomicdevelopmentandspecificnationalconditions,absorbandborrowtheadvancedexperiencesofforeigncountries,andblazeanewresource-efficientdevelopmentroadthatbestsuitsChina’vingthegoalofmodernization,theconstrai,totransformthemodeofeconomicgrowth,totakeanewroadofindustrialization,,formulateclear-cutstrategies,policiesanddevelopmentgoals,takepracticalandeffectivemeasures,giveprioritytosolvingthecriticalproblemsrelatedtothesystemandmechanism,leviated,couldalong-termmechanisminpromotingconservationofresourcesbeestablished,andcouldChina’’seconomy,lowefficiencyinresourcesutilizationandseriousenvironmentalpollutionistheimperfecteconomicstructure,andthecrucialcauseisthattherelationshipamongthegovernment,,howshouldtherolesofenterprises,governmentandthemarketbedefinedInwhatwayshouldtheyplaytheirrespectiverolesHowshouldtheirinter-rel,Ibelieve,"thegovernmentplaysthekeyrole,enterprisesarethemainplayers,andthemarketisthefoundation,andthecommonparticipationbyallsocialsectorsistheguarantee."ducingwasteofresources,protectingtheenvironmentandachievingasustainabledevelopmentareissueswithadirectbearingonthecountry’rovide,,manyproblemsrelatedtoresourcesineconomicdevelopmentallhave,prioritysh,itisnecessarytoclearlydefinetheroleofresourcesconservationinthecountry’slong-termdevelopmentstrategy,lpolicyandshould,nottostressresourcesconservationwhentheconstraintofresourcesshortageisserious,overnmentsmustpayhighattentionto,notanissuethatthecentralgovernme,notastrategythatisimplementedinregionswhereresourcesintotheirsocialandeconomicdevelopmentplans,shouldembodytheirconceptandawarenessofresourceconservationintheirspecificactionsandtheimplementationofthestrategy,,thegovernmentshouldmakesystematicdesignandarrangementsofresourcesconservationintermsoflaw,standards,policyandgovernmentcontrols,shouldestablishalegalandpolicyframeworkthatisconsistentwiththegoalofbuildingaresources-efficientsociety,andshouldgiveprioritytotheapmatestablishingalong-termmechanismforpromotingresourcesconservation;havecompulsorystandardsandpayattentiontoestablishinganeffectiveincentivemechanism;andprovideincentivesforr,inparticular,establishaneconomicrewardandpenaltysystemconsistentwithmarketeconomyprincipleswiththetoolsoftaxationandpricecontrol,soastoreasonablyguidetheinvestmentbehaviorsofproducersandconsumptionbehaviorsofthepublic,andtoguidethem,thegovernmentsshouldtrytoavoidthephenomenonofstressingprinciplesofthepolicy,butneglectingtheapplicabilityofthepolicies,stressingtheformulationofthepolicies,,,andmoreimportant,sconservation,andshouldvigorouslyencouragearesource-conservingproductsandservices,encouragetheinnovativeawarenessofresourceconservationandimprovetheirownefficiencyinresourcesutilization.XiaBin,,ionMustFurtherUnifytheRegulatoryPoliciesInlightoftheinadequateanddiversesupervisionsysteminChina’strustassetmanagementmarket,aswellastheseriousemergingproblemsandpotentialrisks,theauthorcalledinearly2001fortheconstructionofaunifiedassetmanagementsystem,oratrustassetmanagementsysteminChinaassoonaspossible(seeEconomicMagazine,May2001).Now,twoyearslater,theproblemsnotonlystillexist,butalsobecomemoreserious,withendlessmarketdisputes,continuousemergenceo(CBRC)stoppedthetrustlendingbusinessofMinshengBankinMarch2003,followedbythecalloftheSecuritiesRegulatoryCommission(CSRC)tostopassetmanageme,theauthorfurthercalledto"endthechaoticsituationofdiversepoliciesontrustassetmanagement",reportedhisthoughtstorelevantdepartmentleaders,andmadehisvoiceinnewspaper(seeFinancialEconomicTimes,24Many2003).Hecriticizedthelackofcoordinationandprudenceofthesupervisionsystemofrelevantregulatoryagencies,,withthelapseofanotheryear,whataretheinstitutionalchoicefortrustassetmanagementbusinessofbanks,securitiesinstitutionsandtrustcompanies,orotherwisenamedas"clientassetmanagementbusiness"or"collectiveassetmanagementbusiness"Therehasbeennonewdevelopm,,thecontentsoftheoriginalsystemstillconflictsignificantlywiththestipu,insomepartsofChina,banksarestillengagedsecretlyintrustlendingbusiness,eith,theCSRCannouncedthenullificationofthedocumentsontrustinvestmentmanagementformulatedrespectivelyin2001andthemiddleof2003,andirtrustfundmanagementoftrustcompanies,suchasthe"onetomultiple"trustassetmanagement,non-guaranteedminimumreturns,minimumrequirementsfortrustfunds,,theyhaveindeeddrawnfrompastlessons,andareconducivetothestandardizationoftrustassetmanagementbu,itisstillnecessaryforustothinkcarefully,orfortherelevantregulatoryagenciestoansweraftercoordination,thatwhyaclientusesthesametrustfundmanagementserviceseparatelyinbothasecuritiescompanyandatrustcompany,andwhydiffer,theCBRCstipulatesthattheminimumrequirementfortrustfundofasingleclientisRMB50,000,whiletheCSRCstipulatesthattheminimumrequirementfortrustfundofasingleclientinrestrictivecollectiveassetmanagementisRMB50,000,andfornon-restrictiveaggregateassetmanagementisRMB100,xceed200persons,or200contracts,whiletheCSRCubmittedtotheregulatoryagencyforrecordonly;whiletheCSRCstipulatesthattherestrictivecollectiveassetmanagementschemesmustgothroughcomplianceexamination,andnon-restrictiveaggregateassetmanagementschememustgothroughcomprehensiveexamination(relevantrulesstipulatethattherearethreekindsofapprovalsoftheadministrativedepartments–examination,certificationandputtingonrecord).TheCBRChasnoclearstipulationonifthetrustfundsofclientsmustbeturnedtotrustmanagementofathirdparty;whiletheCSRCstipulatesthattrustfundsofclientsmustbeturnedtotrustmanagementofatrustassetmanagementinstitution,etmanagementschemesoftheirowncompanieswiththeirownfunds;,trustinvestmentcompaniesstillhavedifficultytoopentheiraccountsforsuchschemessofarinstockexchanges(ItissaidthattheymaybeabletodoitafterOctober1).TheCSRChasnorestrictionongeographicareasofcollectiveassetmanagementoperationofsecuritiescompanies,whiletheCBRCclearlyrestrictsoraclientwhotrusthisfundstothehandsofbothatrustcompanyandasecuritiescompanyforthesametypeofsecuritiestransaction,suchasstocktransactionAsgovernmentregulatoryagencies,whatdotheCBRCandtheCSRCregardastherightsandinterestofthesameconsumptionactsofthesamefinancialconsumer,andwhatisthelegalbasisoftheirregulationactsIsitnecessarytounifyandcoordinateinter-agencypoliciesandgivefinancialconsumerstherighttogetinformationInfact,someunduefinancialrisksemergedexactlybecauseofthelong-termconflictsbetweendiverseregulatorypolicies.

          ZhangXiaojiBeforetheAsianfinancialcrisis,EastAsiancountriesmainlypursuedaunilateralliberalizationpolicybasedonthemost-favored-nationtreatment(MFN),whileuntriesand,asaresult,regionalehina,JapanandKorea(abbreviatedas10+3),,JapanandKoreaareallcountrieswithimportantinfluenceinEastAsia,andtheirdialogueandcoordinationwithinthe10+3frameworka,theleadersofthethreecountriesagreedtolaunchatanappropriatetimeaoTradeAreaisaccountingforanincreasinglygreaterproportionoftheglobaltradeInthe1990s,,atotalof179regionaltradeagreements(RTA),andthe,economicintegrationcanbeusedtopreventpossiblepoliticalormilitaryconflicts;freetradeareasareestablishedtoexpandregionalmarket,attractoutsideinvestmentandincreaseinternationalcompetitiveness;smallcountriescanstrengthentheirpositionsinthemultilateraltradenegotiationswiththeirmembershipinregionalorganizations;,,newregionaltr,theintra-regionaltradeoftheEuropeanUnionandtheNorthAmericanFreeTradeArea,thetwolargesttradeblocsintheworld,,theEuropeanUnioni,theNAFTA-basedeconomicintegrationwillexpandtoformaFreeTradeAreaoftheAmericas(FTAA).Theintra-regionaltradeofthetwogreatertradeblocsnowinformationhasexceeded40percentoftheglobaltrade(Table1).Othercountriesareallseekingregionalcooperationpartnersinordertoavoidthedamageshif澳门葡京pj真人投注




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